POSITIVISM VS NEGATIVISM AS AN ARTISTIC IMPULSE (COMPARATIVE APPROACH TO IVAN BAHRIANYI AND GEORGE ORWELL WORKS)
Keywords:Ivan Bahrianyi, George Orwell, typological approach, genetic similarity, indirect dialogue, freedom, liberty, anti-totalitarian discourse, dignity, biographical approach.
The given article deals with the problem of comparison of literary and political works of Ivan Bahrianyi and George Orwell, as well as with an objective to prove that these two writers make up a far from random parallel for comparison.
On the basis of scientific works it proves that one can trace a genetic similarity in the main ideas highlighted in a number of works by these two writers. Both of them had a kind of indirect dialogue on the topics of freedom, equality and struggle against anti-humane regimes.
The article also highlights the fact that there is more to the indirect dialogue of Ivan Bahrianyi and George Orwell than it seems. Biographical insight used for the research proves that both men faced similar struggles in their lives, their political views were really close and their interpretation of the ongoing events serves as evidence. Consequently the article brings to attention the fact that biographies of the writers might become a key for understanding their works and positions. Another fact to support the above-given idea is that both writers use their own lives and personal experience as a basis for literary interpretation; this was proved by the researches of both George Orwell and Ivan Bahrianyi literary heritage. As a result we can research their works from the point of comparative typology in synchrony on the double grounds: the indirect dialogue about crucial human problems (mainly a solitary personal struggle against totalitarian regime) as well as usage of a similar artistic method to bring it to their audience.
The article deals with the problem of freedom as a core problem highlighted in literary and political works of Ivan Bahrianyi and George Orwell. It traces similarities and differences in the authors’ perception of the notion and ways it changes in various circumstances. It proves that the Ukrainian author pays more attention to the national aspect of freedom than his British counterpart does, which might be explained both by the differences in the worldviews (Ivan Bahranyj always defined himself as a socialistic patriot, while George Orwell often was perceived as a generalist and the citizen of the world) and by the political conditions of the nations the writers represent. In terms of personal freedom both authors claim it to be a crucial value for every person as it is closely connected with notions of dignity, self-respect, dreams realization etc. and defines the very existence of humankind.
Generally the article emphasizes the role and place of the writers in the anti-totalitarian discourse of the XX century. It draws attention to the fact that Ivan Bahrianyi and George Orwell devoted all their lives and literary efforts to the struggle for a free personality, who is not to be oppressed by any political regime. To achieve this goal they employed completely opposite methods, using positivism and negativism consequently as their basic artistic impulses. Though their ways of describing world phenomena were different the impact of their works and recipients’ perception of their main ideas is the same.
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